This is Your Brain on Fructose
The latest study, published in JAMA this week, studied MRIs of subjects to find a possible link in the brain between the consumption of fructose and obesity. -- When subjects ingested glucose (the traditional form of sugar found in nature), the areas of the brain that regulate appetite and satiety were affected "normally." In other words, people registered tht they were feeling full from the intake. -- But when the same people consumed fructose--a compound very similar in chemical makeup to glucose--the brains didn't activate in the same way. In fact, the hormones that impact satiety were barely boosted at all.
Why a Sugar High Leads to a Brain Low
On the contrary, researchers at the Salk Institute in California found that high glucose levels resulting from quick, easy sugar intake slowly but surely damage cells everywhere in the body, especially those in the brain.
Two additional reasons why excess refined sugar is detrimental to your brain:
- A research group at the University of Wisconsin found that the brain may react to excess refined sugars found in food as if they were a virus or bacteria. The resulting immune response may cause cognitive deficits such as those associated with Alzheimer's disease.
- High blood sugar coupled with performing a mentally challenging task is associated with high levels of cortisol—a stress hormone known to impair memory.
It's pretty clear—excessive glucose in the form of refined sugar can be very detrimental to your brain, ultimately affecting your attention span, your short-term memory, and your mood stability. Excessive refined sugar can:
- Block membranes and thereby slow down neural communication.
- Increase free radical inflammatory stress on your brain. Free radicals can rupture cells.
- Interfere with synaptic communication.
- Cause neurons to misfire and send erroneous messages that take time and energy to sort out.
- Increase delta, alpha, and theta brain waves, which make it harder to think clearly.
- Can eventually damage your neurons.
Keen Cuisine: The Trouble With Fructose
"Glucose can enter the bloodstream directly from the gut, and its uptake by body cells is regulated by the hormone insulin. Fructose, however, is metabolized mainly by the liver, and the process significantly ups production of fatty triglycerides. It's as if the body is consuming a high-fat diet. The triglycerides create fatty liver disease. Pumped into the bloodstream, triglycerides create a risk for heart disease. Circulated to the brain, research shows, they contribute to an array of cognitive deficits.
Dumbed by Diet?
Consuming a high-fructose diet not only undermines body metabolism but compromises mental health, UCLA researchers report. Male animals drinking fructose-laced water can't remember landmarks placed to help them escape from a maze. Their brain cells have trouble transmitting signals from one neuron to the next. The explosive surge in metabolic syndrome, marked by insulin resistance and leading to an epidemic of diabetes, is likely taking a toll on the nation's cognitive and emotional capacity.
The memory-impairing effects of a high-fructose diet may primarily afflict males—and males are by far the biggest consumers of fructose, notably in soft drinks from fast-food chains. Call it the McDonald's effect. A 60 percent fructose diet enlarges the liver in female rats but does not consistently increase their triglyceride level. Nor is their memory impaired on maze tests, as it is in males, whose memory deficits are highly correlated with triglyceride level. Estrogen may blunt some of fructose's effects.
Brain cells develop insulin resistance, just as body cells do, say Michigan researchers. In fact, insulin resistance induced by triglycerides may cause the memory impairment of fructose-fed animals. It also may abet age-related cognitive decline. Insulin helps brain cells absorb and use their favorite fuel, glucose. But high levels of insulin, as occur with insulin resistance, also curtail the brain's ability to clear out beta-amyloid, greatly raising levels of the problem protein responsible for the brain plaques of Alzheimer's disease.
Expanding their view of the metabolic syndrome, scientists now invoke the term "metabolic-cognitive syndrome" to refer to a complex relationship between metabolic disorders and brain disturbances. Deficits in insulin signaling in the brain, caused by the metabolic syndrome, may foster the development of depression. By depriving brain cells of the ability to take up glucose, insulin resistance may also impair the functioning of neurons, diminishing energy levels and the ability to produce and respond to neurotransmitters."
Why Our Brains Love Sugar - And Why Our Bodies Don't
"- Research studies have linked excess sugar consumption to dangerous levels of LDL cholesterol (the bad type!), increased plaque deposits in the arteries, and breast and colon cancers. High fructose corn syrup – that insidious ingredient found in many salad dressings, ketchup, coffee creamers etc. has been linked to increased heart disease and stroke. There is evidence that some tumors have insulin receptors that feed on glucose.
- Nora Volker, a researcher at the National institutes for Drug Abuse has shown, using brain imaging, that there are similarities in the brains of obese people and those of drug addicts and alcoholics. This is indirect evidence, as we don’t know that sugar consumption caused this effect.
- Nicole Avena, Ph.D., a Princeton researcher has shown that rats deprived of food for 12 hours and then given sucrose added to their regular food on a regular basis showed signs of bingeing, and increased searching for the sucrose (craving), These effects continued even after the sucrose had been withdrawn for one month. Withdrawal also occurred including symptoms of depression, anxiety, and increased aggression. Interestingly, the rats did not become obese – they cut down on regular food to compensate for the sucrose. Also, these effects were not shown in rats deprived of food and given just their regular food without sucrose.
- Research suggests that sugar can lead to changes in dopamine receptors, such that tolerance develops – more of the substance is needed to get an effect. A decrease in some types of receptors (D2) occurred, which suggests an overall decreased ability to get pleasure from other substances and experiences. This could make the person or animal more dependent on sugar for pleasure and reward, since the light of other experiences is dimmed.
- Sugar consumption also leads to release of endogenous opioids in the brain; leading to a rush of pleasure, similar (although not of the same magnitude) as injecting heroin. Interestingly, heroin addicts show increased cravings for sweets when they are first abstinent. This effect, known as cross-tolerance, shows that addiction to one substance makes it easier to become addicted to another substance that may use the same brain chemistry.
- While we don’t know for sure that the same effects would occur in humans as animals, it is possible that eating too much sugary foods could lead to cravings, withdrawal, tolerance (needing more to get an effect) and preoccupation with finding the favored food. For me, this suggests the need to cut down on added sugar in all of its processed forms, and start substituting with the natural sugars found in fruit that do not have these toxic effects. Overcoming any kind of addiction or unhealthy habit takes time and commitment. In the next post, I will suggest some strategies that work."
Food Science Michael Pollan: Food Addictions and Health - iReport (video)
(Tobacco Corporation’s nicotine and Food Corporation’s glucose fructose corn syrup super sugars)
- Michael Pollan Food Rules
- Food science, similar to tobacco corporations, designed to make you eat more, linked to high fructose corn syrup, sounds conspiratorial.
- Americans get 20% of their calories from high fructose corn syrup.
- Americans eat 240 lbs of sugar a year.
- With health care reform insurers would have an interest in your heath.
• The root cause of rising health care costs is the U.S. diet.
• The U.S. obesity epidemic
The insurance industry would have an interest in a healthier U.S. population due to the elimination of preexisting conditions.
If you give a powerful industry an interest in an unhealthy population you will end up with an unhealthy population. The same is true if you give a powerful industry an interest in a healthy population.
A new study claims some people are addicted to food "addiction driving obesity" - MSNBC (video)
- There's no doubt that sugar clearly affects the brain like cocaine, morphine, and nicotine.
- 4 criteria for addiction; Binging, withdrawal, cravings, cross sensitization with other drugs of abuse.
- Addiction is driving obesity.
study claims some people are addicted to food
A new study claims that some people just can't say no to food.
How To Get Over Your Sugar Addiction
Obesity; White House unveils campaign to fight childhood obesity - CNN (article link)
- First Lady Michelle Obama is spearheading the White House effort to fight obesity.
- In 2006, obesity accounted for 9.1 percent of medical spending and as much as $147 billion annually
- obese patients spent an average of $1,429 more for their medical care that is a 42% higher cost
- costs of hospitalizations related to childhood obesity rose from $125.9 million in 2001 to $237.6 million in 2005
Fact Check: The cost of obesity
First lady launches "Let's Move" campaign to fight childhood obesity - NBC (video)
Being careful to emphasize physical fitness over physical appearance, first lady Michelle Obama launched her "Let's Move" compaign to fight childhood obesity on Tuesday.
Facebook letsmove: http://www.facebook.com/letsmove?ref=sgm
Bill Clinton talks about a program targeting childhood obesity, and how old eating habits impacted his recent health - CNN (video)
'we now know that if you change your diet and exercise you can reverse heart disease, diabetes, you can get off medicine' - Bill Clinton
- Chelation therapy is a natural healing therapy used to remove plaque buildup.
Mayor Mike Bloomber
Action and Legislation on Large Soda Sugar Drinks
Obesity Epidemic, NYC War on Sugar NBCNightlyNews 05312012
Mayor Bloomberg, Sugar Drink Law NBC NightlyNews 03112013
Pepsi to cut salt, sugar and saturated fats - Reuters (article link)
"We believe that a healthier future for all people and our planet means a more successful future for PepsiCo," said Indra Nooyi, PepsiCo CEO.
- Pepsi said it plans a reduction of 25% the average sodium per serving in major global food brands in key markets by 2015.
- reduce the average saturated fat per serving by 15% by 2020.
- reduce the average sugar per serving in key global beverage brands by 25% by 2020.
(Reuters) - PepsiCo Inc said on Sunday it would cut the levels of salt, sugar and saturated fats in its top-selling products.
DR MARK HYMAN - DIABESITY
Dr. Mark Hyman Archive | Videos
The Diabesity Epidemic Part III: Treating the REAL Causes Instead of the Symptoms
"the number one nutritional change that leads to diabesity is sugar"
The Diabesity Epidemic Part 1: How Diabetes and Obesity are Ravaging America Today
The Diabesity Epidemic Part 2: Why Conventional Medicine Actually Makes Things Worse
How to Optimize Your Nutrition for Vibrant Health
"there is no role for foreign mulecules like trans fats, high fructose points syrups, pestacides that interfere with our biology at every level."
"and I don't mean the cheap super sweet government subsidized high fructose corn syrup that's driving our epidemic of obesity and chronic disease."
Dr. Mark Hyman - Diabesity
How Diet Soda Makes You Fat (and Other Food and Diet Industry Secrets)
"Diet Soda and Diet Drinks Make You Fat and Cause Type 2 Diabetes
- Diet sodas raised the risk of diabetes more than sugar-sweetened sodas!
- Women who drank one 12-ounce diet soda had a 33 percent increased risk of type 2 diabetes and women who drank one 20-ounce soda had 66 percent increased risk."
"But the science has proven that eating fat doesn’t make you fat – SUGAR does. And it is sugar NOT fat that raises your cholesterol despite what people and most doctors still believe.
"How does food addiction happen? New research shows that industrial food full of processed sugars, fats, salt, and chemicals are powerfully addictive. And sugar is the worst culprit. One animal study found that sugar is more addictive than cocaine. When rats were given the choice between mainline cocaine right into their veins or sweetened water (in fact, they used an artificial sweetener), they found that sugar was eight times more addictive than cocaine. Even the rats already addicted to cocaine switched over to diet drinks! And what’s even more interesting is that while cocaine and heroin activate only one spot for pleasure in the brain, sugar lights up the brain like a pinball machine!"
10 Rules to Eat Safely for Life (and What to Remove from Your Kitchen)
"3. If sugar (by any name, including organic cane juice, honey, agave, maple syrup, cane syrup, or molasses) is on the label, throw it out. There may be up to 33 teaspoons of sugar in the average bottle of ketchup. Same goes for white rice and white flour, which act just like sugar in the body. If you have diabesity – the spectrum of metabolic imbalances starting with just a little belly fat, leading all the way to diabetes— you can’t easily handle any flour, even whole-grain. Throw it out.
4. Throw out any food with high-fructose corn syrup on the label. It is a super sweet liquid sugar that takes no energy for the body to process. Some high-fructose corn syrup also contains mercury as a by-product of the manufacturing process. Many liquid calories, such as sodas, juices, and “sports” drinks, contain this metabolic poison. It always signals low quality or processed food."
The Blood Sugar Solution: An UltraHealthy Program to Lose Weight, Reverse Diabetes, and Feel Great
"More than one out of every two Americans is overweight or affected by diabetes or pre-diabetes (90 percent of which goes undiagnosed). These conditions are the cause of premature aging, heart disease, cancer, depression, infertility, and dementia. And they are 100 percent reversible.
Learn about the seven myths that keep you overweight and sick, along with how to
- Overcome food addiction and change your relationship to food
- Use advances in nutrition, exercise, mind-body medicine, nutritional supplements, and detoxification to treat the underlying causes of weight gain, diabetes, and chronic disease .. "
Diabetes drug linked to B12 deficiency; B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells; Mental changes and neuropathy - Reuters (article link)
- symptoms of B12 deficiency include fatigue, mental changes, anemia and nerve damage known as neuropathy.
- all these symptoms can easily be misdiagnosed as being due to diabetes.
- an estimated 246 million people have diabetes -- rates are expected to rise -- type 2 diabetes linked to poor diet, lack of exercise.
Common diabetes drug linked to vitamin deficiency
LONDON (Reuters) - Patients treated over long periods with metformin, a common drug for diabetes, are at risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency which is also likely to get worse over time, according to a study published Friday.
Diabetes type-2 can be reversed - CNN (video)
John Lisk reports on how some diabetics can turn their illness around.
A health diet can reverse metabolic syndrome linked to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke - Reuters (article link)
(Reuters Health) - People with metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of risk factors for heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes -- have a better chance of reversing it if they stick to a healthy diet, a new study shows.
- After five years, nearly half no longer had the metabolic syndrome.
- People who adhered the most closely to the AHEI were nearly twice as likely to have reversed their metabolic syndrome.
For people with central obesity, defined as waist circumference above 102 centimeters (40 inches) for men and 88 centimeters (35 inches) for women, those with the healthiest diets were nearly three times as likely to have recovered from metabolic syndrome than those with the unhealthiest eating patterns; healthy eating also had a somewhat stronger effect for people who started out with high levels of harmful triglycerides.
Healthy eating helps reverse metabolic syndrome
8 Steps to Reversing Diabesity - DrHyman (article link)
"The Real Causes of Diabesity
The entire spectrum of diabesity including all of its complications—diabetes, elevated blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol—are simply downstream symptoms that result from problems with diet, lifestyle, and environmental toxins interacting with our unique genetic susceptibilities.
Those are the real causes of diabesity.
And because insulin resistance (and diabesity) are a direct outcome of diet and lifestyle, the condition is 100 percent reversible in the vast majority of cases."
How Dietary Supplements Can Save You Thousands
"can reduce our expenditures by over 24 billion dollars in 5 five years."
Obesity yearly costs increasing and at $147 billion surpassing cancer at $104 billion - CNN (video)
High Cost of Obesity
- $147 billion a year, $14 billion for child obesity, $344 billion projected in 8 years, 21% of total medical costs.
- the treatment of cancer and diagnosis is about $104 billion in comparison.
- changing habits, activity, poverty, and access to healthy foods are the many factors.
- Many ideas and what's working in Washington D.C.
U.S. losing obesity battle
New evidence shows America is losing the battle against obesity. CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports.
5 million more people living with diabetes
"Dr. John Anderson isn't surprised by the rapidly growing cost of diabetes in America. New research from the American Diabetes Association shows the total cost of diabetes was $245 billion in 2012 -- a 41% increase from the $174 billion spent in 2007.
"I know of no other disease that's increasing at (about) 8% per year," said Anderson, president of medicine and science for the American Diabetes Association. "That to me isn't surprising, it's troubling." -- The obesity epidemic also plays a role. Being overweight or obese is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. -- Diabetes can cause serious health problems such as heart disease, kidney failure and blindness, according to the CDC. If it's not kept under control, diabetes also can cause infections that may lead to leg or foot amputations. -- Approximately 246,000 deaths were attributed to diabetes in 2012, according to the American Diabetes Association's report."
Sugar-heart disease link revealed - NightlyNews (video)
- Access sugar in processed foods decrease good cholesterol HDL and increase triglycerides which can be a lethal combination
The lower the amount of added sugar people ate, the better their good cholesterol and their blood triglyceride levels - CNN (article link)
- The less sugar added to foods for typical people, the better are their blood-fat profiles and the lower are their cardiovascular risks.
- Lower added-sugar consumption linked to better levels of good cholesterol.
Sweet tooth? Here's news hard to live with
Heart Disease Silent Killer of Women NBCNightlyNews02252012
Soda; drinking 16 ounces or more daily doubles your risk of chronic kidney disease - Prevention (article link)
- drinking 16 ounces or more daily (whether diet or regular) doubles your risk of chronic kidney disease, according to a recent NIH study of more than 900 people.
- it is associated with several risk factors for kidney disease hypertension, diabetes, and kidney stones.
- the ingredient phosphoric acid may be the culprit; it's been repeatedly linked to urinary changes that promote kidney stones.
- consumption is associated with significantly lower bone density in women, increasing the risk of osteoporosis.
22 Craziest Health Rumors
Obesity; Soda-cancer link? - CNN (video)
A new study suggests a link between drinking soda and developing pancreatic cancer.
- A research study claims that there is an 87% increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
- linked to sugar
- obesity is linked to cancer
There was a relationship between increased pancreatic cancer risk and higher intakes of sugar, candy, honey and jam - Reuters (article links)
- Participants with the highest-glycemic index diets were 78% more likely to have pancreatic cancer.
- It is possible that such diets could contribute to pancreatic risk, such foods influence the body's secretion of the blood-sugar-regulating hormone insulin -- And insulin encourages the growth and division of cells in the pancreas -- raising the possibility that the hormone could encourage the growth and spread of pancreatic cancer cells.
Sugary foods linked to pancreatic cancer risk
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People with diets high in sweets and other foods that cause rapid blood-sugar spikes may have a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer than those who eat less of those foods, a new study suggests.
Obesity accounts for 20% or more of cancer; A report that concludes Americans are under constant assault from carcinogenic agents - Reuters (article link)
One big problem -- people are soaked in chemicals, electromagnetic radiation, hormones and other known causes of cancer that can interact with thousands of genetic variations to start tumors growing -- or not. Figuring out whether any one ingredient is mutating a gene or set of genes in a certain way will be difficult.
- Tobacco use and other unhealthy behaviors cause cancer.
- Obesity; "The lack of physical activity, weight gain, obesity clearly account for 20% or more of cancer"
- Alcohol; "We know that alcohol causes 4% of cancers.
Cancer report energizes activists, not policy
Obese drinkers face liver 'double whammy' - BBC (article link)
Two studies of more than a million UK men and women suggest excess weight and alcohol act together to raise the risk of cirrhosis and other liver diseases.
- "We estimate that almost 20% of liver cirrhosis in middle-aged UK women is due to excess weight, while almost 50% is due to alcohol consumption."
- Obese men who said they drank 15 or more units a week had the greatest risk of liver disease; almost 19 times higher than those who were slim.
Obese drinkers face liver 'double whammy'
Drinkers who are overweight face a "double whammy" impact on their liver, research suggests.
Women who exercise regularly have firmer skin - Prevention (article link)
- Exercise infuses skin with oxygen and nutrients needed for collagen production
7 Steps to Younger-Looking Skin
It’s never too late to reverse the effects of aging. Start now!
How Malnutrition Causes Obesity
Obesity and an interesting look at contrasting school lunches served around the world - CNN (video)
Connect The World looks at food served at schools around the world as part of its focus on childhood obesity.
Obesity in the classroom
Connect The World looks at food served at schools around the world as part of its focus on childhood obesity.
NAAO; Kids in New York get schooled on the ABC's of eating - CNN (video)
Kids in New York get schooled on the ABC's of eating. CNN's Stephanie Elam reports.
- NAAO; National Action Against Obesity.
Kids get schooled in healthy eating
Jamie Oliver with Anderson Cooper; Jamie Oliver aims to help kids - CNN (video)
In March, CNN's Anderson Cooper sat down with Jamie Oliver to discuss his crusade to change the way kids eat.
Jamie Oliver aims to help kids
Jamie Oliver with Dr. Sanjay Gupta; Shopping healthy for your family - CNN (video)
In April, Jamie Oliver took CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta around a grocery store to show him how to shop healthy.
Mom fights for healthier school lunches; Are you making your kid fat? - CNN (2 video)
In September 2010, school food activists told the government it was time to help districts serve better, healthier food.
Chef Domenica Catelli explains how you may be serving your family foods that pack on the pounds without knowing it.
Mom fights for healthier school lunches
Are you making your kid fat?
‘Top Chef’ host’s new film argues hunger in America can be fixed
Fast, healthy burgers at home - MSNBC (video)
Skip the greasy fast-food joint and save calories by making your own meaty and tasty burgers at home with these deliciousrecipes from David Zinczenko, the author behind "Cook This, Not That!"
Study: Most kids meals unhealthy - CNN (video)
A new study is revealing just how unhealthy most kids' meals are. CNN's Elizabeth Cohen reports.
Sorority girl drops 107 pounds - CNN (article link)
"What I tell people is that you find new friends at the gym," she said. "If you don't have the support, it's really hard to do it on your own." -- "For the longest, I would go to the gym and go home to eat whatever I wanted," she said. "That's not how it works. I had to learn to eat differently and to learn to like new foods..
The Stoked Method: A High Intensity Workout - ABC News (video)
Tips on how to transform your body and mind.
Diet Secrets: "The Biggest Loser: 6 weeks to a healthier you" - MSNBC (video)
"Biggest Loser's diet and nutrition expert Cheryl Foreberg shares quick and easy meal ideas from her new cookbook, "Six Weeks to a Healthier You."
Diet secrets from 'Biggest Loser'
Diet Blunders That Slow Metabolism - MSNBC (video)
Diet Blunders That Slow Metabolism
Master your metabolism to shed weight
Spot Reducing: I'm often asked, "If I do 100 lunges, will my thighs get thinner?" - Prevention (article link)
The answer is "no, no, no." There is a common misconception that, if you do exercises for one body part hard enough or long enough, you will have weight loss in that area. Or, as it is often referred to, you will "spot reduce."
Here is the bottom line: You cannot "spot reduce" body fat. You cannot tone fat. You cannot tighten fat. The only way to get rid of extra body fat is the old-fashioned way: through cardiovascular exercises.
The Right Way to Tone Trouble Spots
DASH Diet May Help Reduce Kidney Stones - ABC NEWS (video)
A diet meant to stop hypertension is also shown to reduce kidney stones.
- DASH: Dietary, Approaches to, Stop, Hypertension
- A diet high is fruits, vegetables, nuts, and dairy product but low in red meat and sugar drinks.
- May reduce hypertension and prevent kidney stones.
- The study group that ate this diet also seemed to have high citrate levels an important salt that prevents calcium stones.
ACID-BASE IMBALANCE, DIET AND SUGAR (acid-base disorder, acidic blood, blood pH, pH balance, alkalosis, ..)
Diet and Stress: Acid-Base Disorders
There are two factors which contribute to a pH imbalance.
• The first is the person’s diet (Food) and the second is the person’s emotional well being (Stress and Anxiety).
• Stress and anxiety are the principal acid generators aside from the diet. (& Sleep Deprivation)
Balancing your pH is widely considered to be the single most important thing you can do for your health.
full page on Diet and Stress: Acid-Base Disorders
Foods that Fight Inflammation and Foods that Cause It
"What you eat can help -- or hinder -- your body's healing process. Here's how to tell which foods are friend or foe. -- "Because more than about 70 percent of our immune-system cells are found in the lining of the digestive tract, you can deal with a lot of inflammation through diet," says Julie Daniluk, a Toronto-based registered holistic nutritionist and the author of Meals that Heal Inflammation. -- "In general, eating foods that are fresh, decreasing your reliance on red meats and full-fat dairy and opting for more lean protein sources, as well as watching your refined-carbohydrate intake, will help with reducing inflammation," says Anar Allidina, a registered dietitian in Toronto. Here are some key foods that may help fight inflammation and some to help prevent the problem in the first place."
Can a Mother's Pregnancy Diet Influence Her Child's Future Weight? - Health Land (article link)
Adding to the evidence that your baby's health may be influenced by the nine months it spends in the womb, a new study finds that a pregnant mother's diet may be associated with her child's later risk of obesity.
Obese individuals can suffer from social anxiety disorder due to weight alone - EurekAlert! (article link)
New findings from Rhode Island Hospital study indicate that a change to DSM-IV criteria is needed
PROVIDENCE, R.I. – A new study from Rhode Island Hospital researchers shows that obese individuals with social anxiety related only to their weight may experience anxiety as severe as individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The findings directly conflict with the criteria for SAD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The study is now published online in advance of print in the journal Depression and Anxiety.
Number One Killer of Women, Heart Disease - (Blog)
Stress, sugar, "acid-base imbalance, pH balance, acidic blood, .. ,", inflammation, macromineral deficiencies, .. , heart disease.
Stress, sleep deprivation, adrenaline, cortisol, acid-base imbalance, and macromineral deficienies are part of a medical knowledge mobbing weapon, a bad diet and a diet high in sugar helps.
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