Microwave Technology Research
Radar Assault Weapons & Faraday Cages
- Created on Tuesday, 07 December 2010 01:27
Human right defenders and citizens who are targeted by the mob in Canada need a faraday cage, the mob is using energy assault weapons, powerful radar, to inflict different deadly cancers.
Thick metal plates, thick copper wires or cables, and a good ground source like a city-household's copper pluming are what is needed for a good faraday cage and protection against radar assaults from neighboring homes or any other source. Note: another problem technology used by organized crime, focused ultra sound, the weakness is water containers.
Electrical Conductivity, Dielectric Heating; 1) Dielectric Absorbers (ohmic energy loss of energy, conducting particles); 2) Magnetic Absorbers (the magnetic hysteresis). Sea Water is usually one of the highest ratings in radar attenuation, it has ions and conducts electricity, and absorbs energy.
If you think of a microwave oven water boils and metal "sparkles" because of their high dielectric ratings but safe for most dry, plastic and ceramic type, and non-metallic containers. If you think of a Faraday Cage, it's a metallic enclosure that is grounded, when microwaves or radar assaults hit the metal the energy is absorbed and conducted to the ground.
If you think about ground penetrating radar it is the moisture of the ground and its conductivity, clays, and the ferric content, ferric sand and rocks, slate with iron for example. If you think about the industry, it's about the thickness and density of concrete that contains metal.
If you look at this attenuation formula the two main components are electrical conductivity, like a faraday cage, and dielectric constant.
V = velocity in m/s,
ε = dielectric constant (dimensionless),
a = attenuation in decibels/m (db/m),
σ = electrical conductivity in mS/m.
GPR Attenuation Summary
The exponential attenuation coefficient, a, is primarily determined by the ability of the material to conduct electrical currents. In simple uniform materials this is usually the dominant factor; thus a measurement of electrical conductivity (or resistivity) determines attenuation.
In most materials energy is also lost to scattering from material variability and to water being present. Water has two effects; first, water contains ions which contribute to bulk conductivity. Second, the water molecule absorbs electromagnetic energy at high frequencies typically above 1000 MHz (exactly the same mechanism that accounts for why microwave ovens work).
Attenuation increases with frequency as depicted in Figure 2. In environments which are amenable to GPR sounding there is usually a plateau in the attenuation versus frequency curve which defines the "GPR window".
Attenuation varies with excitation frequency and material. This family of graphs depicts general trends. At low frequencies (<1 MHz) attenuation is primarily controlled by DC conductivity. At high frequencies (> 1000 MHz) water is a strong energy absorber.
Lowering frequency improves depth of exploration because attenuation primarily increases with frequency. As frequency decreases, however, two other fundamental aspects of the GPR measurement come into play.
"Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uses a high-frequency (e.g. 40 to 1,500 MHz) EM pulse transmitted from a radar antenna to probe the earth." see Basic Concepts and Attenuation Chart
"At low frequencies (<1 MHz) attenuation is primarily controlled by DC conductivity. At high frequencies (> 1000 MHz) water is a strong energy absorber." see GPR Attenuation Summary
"The exponential attenuation coefficient, a, is primarily determined by the ability of the material to conduct electrical currents. In simple uniform materials this is usually the dominant factor; thus a measurement of electrical conductivity (or resistivity) determines attenuation."
Faraday Cages can be used to shield from and attenuate radar and microwaves. A faraday cage is simply a metal conductive inclosure that is grounded, as the radar hits the conductive metal inclosure the energy, the radar and microwaves, is absorbed and dispersed towards the ground.
Faraday cages cannot block static and slowly varying magnetic fields, such as Earth's magnetic field (a compass will still work inside). To a large degree though, they also shield the interior from external electromagnetic radiation, radar for example, if the conductor is thick enough, thick metal plates for example, and any holes are significantly smaller than the radiation's wavelength.
For example, certain computer forensic test procedures of electronic components or systems that require an environment devoid of electromagnetic interference may be conducted within a screen room. These screen rooms are essentially work areas that are completely enclosed by one or more layers of fine metal mesh or perforated sheet metal.
The metal layers are grounded to dissipate any electric currents generated from the external electromagnetic fields and thus block a large amount of the electromagnetic interference.
The reception of external radio signals, a form of electromagnetic radiation, through an antenna within a cage can be greatly attenuated or even completely blocked by the cage itself.
1. Metal Inclosure (if the conductor is think enough, ex: metal plates/sheet).
2. The metal layers are grounded to dissipate any electric currents generated from the external electromagnetic radiation (ex: radio waves, radar).
3. The reception of external radio signals, a form of electromagnetic radiation (radar for example), through an antenna within a cage can be greatly attenuated or even completely blocked by the cage itself.
GROUND AND GROUNDING RODS
"In electronic circuit theory, a "ground" is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge, which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential."
The Dirt On Ground Rods
"For installations with a longer service life, copper-bonded ground rods are the best fit. For many years, the copper cold water pipe has served as the primary grounding electrode for commercial & residential grounding."
Chemical Ground Electrode System
"ERITECH Chemical Ground Electrodes provide a low-impedance ground in locations of high soil resistivity. Together with GEM as backfill, the system dissipates lightning energy and other dangerous electrical fault currents, even in sandy or rocky soil conditions. Features -- 2-1/8 (54mm) OD Type K copper pipe contains natural electrolytic salts that permeate into the surrounding soil, lowering resistivity"
Silence! Scientists are listening to the universe
The area surrounding the Green Bank Radio Telescope may be the quietest place in America, banning cell phones, Wi-Fi, and other transmitters.
Sea Water Faraday Cage
Free Sea Water can be added to free containers as a cheap attenuation solution for anyone targeted from neighboring homes, .. , radiation technology, powerful radar, serious illness, lung cancer, leukemia, human rights violations. The water is also good protection against focused ultrasound aka HSS or LRAD systems technologies. If these sea water containers are grounded they may act as a faraday cage too, to increase the radar attenuation.
Sea Water Salt contains Magnesium, Mg2+ 3.7%, an Earth Metal, which makes the water conduct electricity. The idea is that Mg plays a high role in attenuation along with the water, water is a dielectric. The composition of Sea Water Salt is Cl− 55%, Na+ 30.6%, SO2−4 7.7%, Mg2+ 3.7%, Ca2+ 1.2%, K+ 1.1%. -- The composition of Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt) MgSO47H2O.
Water is strongly polar, with a region of dispersion, at 20 °C, centred around 17 GHz. It is also intrinsically dissociated, so that even de-ionized water cannot be treated as a dielectric at frequencies much below 1 MHz. Measurements at the high frequencies of the dispersion range contain, before about 1953, many errors shown by values of ′ and ″ mutually inconsistent with the simple Debye equations. It is established that water obeys these with some accuracy, the value of the dispersion coefficient α in the Cole–Cole equation not exceeding 0.05.
At frequencies higher than about 1 MHz (where the loss tangent passes through a minimum of about 5 × 10−3) values of ′ and ″ can be calculated from the Debye equations given in the introduction to this section, with accuracy better than is obtainable by interpolation in a table. The necessary values of s, ∞ and τ follow, chosen to give the best fit with internally consistent data.
Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects
"Four types of effects were originally reported in multiple studies: increased spontaneous abortion, shifts in red and white blood cell counts, increased somatic mutation rates in lymphocytes, and increased childhood, testicular, and other cancers."
Public and occupational exposures to microwave (RF) are of two main types. The first type of exposures are those connected with military and industrial uses and, to some extent broadcast exposures. It is this type that most of the data cited in this study draw upon. The second type, cellular telephones and their associated broadcast requirements, have raised concerns about current exposures because of their increasingly widespread use. Four types of effects were originally reported in multiple studies: increased spontaneous abortion, shifts in red and white blood cell counts, increased somatic mutation rates in lymphocytes, and increased childhood, testicular, and other cancers. In addition, there is evidence of generalized increased disability rates from a variety of causes in one study and symptoms of sensitivity reactions and lenticular opacity in at least one other. These findings suggest that RF exposures are potentially carcinogenic and have other health effects. Therefore, prudent avoidance of unneeded exposures is recommended as a precautionary measure. Epidemiologic studies of occupational groups such as military users and air traffic controllers should have high priority because their exposures can be reasonably well characterized and the effects reported are suitable for epidemiologic monitoring. Additional community studies are needed.
The oceans and sea water attenuate radar and microwaves very quickly because they are both a dielectric and grounded like a faraday cage. Water is a dielectric, and grounded sea water containers can act similar to a faraday cage, a sea water faraday cage.
The reality when under attack through organized crime in some regimes is that you need both thick metal plates that are grounded with thick copper wires to a good ground source, like a house-hold's copper pipes that are connected to the city's water supply, to attenuate powerful radar assaults from neighboring homes or any other source, weaponization of space, .. , . A wall of water bottles or containers to shield from focused ultrasound types of weapons. The water is a dielectric, which helps attenuate the radar assaults and if grounded may attenuate more radar due to the faraday cage mechanism that has been mentioned.
New long lasting metal roofs that are grounded, the weaponization of space and tyrannical regimes, may help shield from these. Aluminum siding that is grounded my help from neighboring home assaults.
"My experience has been powerful radar assaults from neighboring homes combined with false allegations by the police, unlawful entry and search of a home, unlawful seizure of personal computers, and unlawful assessment orders for non-criminal responsibility before trial that if successful finds the accused guilty without a trial, circumvents these charter of rights violations, and makes the seizure and copies of personal computers legal. This is also combined with several police psychiatric intervention attempts through calls of "suspicious vehicles" that leads to incarceration during long and delayed criminal proceedings, and participating defense lawyers. Attempts to attenuate powerful radar assaults is justification for police psychiatric intervention that leads to incarceration at a psychiatric ward. Several months later the assaults came from a location that I did not expect, from below the home, emitters slipped under the home. Several neighbors moving away and new ones in fluctuation."
Several Videos and Illustrations
When attacked by these technologies, powerful radar assaults, most people are faced with isolation, limited knowledge and resources, and mobbing or criminal harassment participants who try to miss lead them as to how to protect themselves from these assaults to make it as expensive as possible, frustrating, and vulnerable for as long as possible to the repetitive assaults aimed at inflicting deadly cancers on the long term. The misleading and deception is also a part of mobbing, manipulation to inflict bitterness and anger, hate, to "burn them" through repetitive provocation once the damages have been inflicted, infertility, cancer, .. , death.
Faraday Cage Upgrade, Feb 6, 2012, Granite and Lead Panels
Powerful radar shielding panels that are made from granite and lead, connected to a metal faraday cage through aluminum tape. *the faraday cage really does work but it is a question of metal thickness, it needs to be thick. Grounded sea water containers may work as a type of faraday cage, water bottles attenuate another mobbing weapon, focused ultrasound.* (see the Articles section Radar Attenuation Technology Blog below ..solutions that I am currently using 1. .. 2. .. 3. ..).
Coca-Cola Faraday Cage
The sea water or salt water faraday cage is probably the cheapest powerful radar attenuation method that I can think of and also shields from focused ultra sound technology or weapon type. Rocks or other material can also be placed inside the plastic containers with the sea water.
Water (Sea Water) Faraday Cage part 1
Faraday Cage Upgrade, Feb 6, 2012, Granite and Lead Panels
Faraday Cage Upgrade Dec 6, 2011
Faraday Cage Upgrade Dec 4, 2011
Faraday Cage Nov 24, 2011
Faraday Cage, Human Rights Defender in Canada
"The British regimes extended workplace psychological harassment to criminal harassment networks, they use homelessness to trap or corner targeted citizens for subjugation. With gun control a new subjugation measure has emerged in British regimes, which involves denial and ridicule. They combine police false allegations with repetitive energy assault weapons, powerful types of radar assaults "you have to turn or die of cancer" aka you have to be subjugated by organized crime, blame is directed towards the police to hide regime subjugation. Serious illness and cancer homicides are hidden through the medical system, a low gun homicide rate." -- "They surround a home with participants, targeted citizens are assaulted in there own homes from neighboring homes with energy assault weapons, underground emitters are slipped under a home that shoot upwards, weaponization of space that targets the top of the head and brain, and public places along with criminal harassment network participants."
A faraday cage connection bar I created using a copper pipe.
Dielectric shielding materials, one is 18" x 18" travertine tile (CaCO3) calcium an earth metal, and green shredded leaves in a water bottle.
Different electrical grounding technics for the faraday cage. One is the household copper plumbing linked to the city's water system and the other ground rods.
Metal roof plates and floor connections.
A van is already a faraday cage, connecting floor with faraday cage.
Very wet ground, copper pipe ground rods, house hold copper plumbing ground for faraday cage.
A picture that illustrates a mobbing and homicide strategy - CNN iReport (article link)
A picture that illustrates a mobbing and homicide strategy, combining criminal allegations with powerful radar assaults with the intent on inflicting deadly cancers.
Evaluation of Road Pavement Density Using Ground Penetrating Radar
From the Fig. 6, it can be found that the density of the road pavement is proportional with attenuation for all the frequencies. In other words, the high density would produce the high attenuation. This due to the fact that the more electromagnetic energy will be absorbed more by the molecules of the road pavement with high density compared with the lower density. This is valid for all frequencies as can be seen in Fig. 6a-d. Besides, it also clearly can be seen that the increasing of the frequency would produced the highest attenuation. It can be proved in Fig. 6d, the highest frequency, 2.6 GHz produce the range of the attenuation is from 57.09 to 71.09 dB whereas the lowest frequency, 1.7 GHz produces the range from 38.88 to 50.98 dB as can be seen in Fig. 6d and a, respectively. Thus, it is interesting to note that density plays an important factor in causing a major difference in the attenuation of GPR signal. -- From Fig. 6, as expected, the attenuation increases with the increasing of density. Generally, the measured attenuation of various road pavement samples shows a good agreement and acceptable results. The proportional relationship between the attenuation and density show that this approach is suitable in this purpose. From the results, it is interesting to consider that based on the characteristic of road pavement molecules, a microwave passing through the road pavement is absorbed by the molecules and the quantity of attenuation change according to the density. --
This study discussed an approach to get a relationship between attenuation and density for various densities of pavement slab samples. From the results, it can be concluded that the different density of pavement slab sample gave an effect for received signal strength and attenuation where the attenuation will increase with the increasing of the density. It is found that density plays an important factor in causing a major difference in the recorded signal strength. Therefore ground penetrating radar data is influenced greatly by density, the void from the materials that will cause power strength data difference and frequencies used whether in the range of 1.7 GHz towards 2.6 GHz. It is also can be found that the increasing of the frequency will causes increasing of the attenuation. The recommended frequency in this study is 1.7 GHz because it gave a more consistent reading and low sensitivity compared with other frequencies such as 2.6 GHz. The four best fitting equations from the results also produce the linear equations where the density will increase with the increasing of attenuation. The figure can be used as a calibration chart where the values of density can be read out directly once the attenuation value are known at various testing. In future development, the GPR result from this study can be used for further GPR research that capable to characterize more properties of road pavement sample.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uses a high-frequency (e.g. 40 to 1,500 MHz) EM pulse transmitted from a radar antenna to probe the earth. The transmitted radar pulses are reflected from various interfaces within the ground, and this return is detected by the radar receiver. Reflecting interfaces may be soil horizons, the groundwater surface, soil/rock interfaces, man-made objects, or any other interface possessing a contrast in dielectric properties. The dielectric properties of materials correlate with many of the mechanical and geologic parameters of materials.
The radar signal is imparted to the ground by an antenna that is in close proximity to the ground. The reflected signals can be detected by the transmitting antenna or by a second, separate receiving antenna. The received signals are processed and displayed on a graphic recorder. As the antenna (or antenna pair) is moved along the surface, the graphic recorder displays results in a cross-section record or radar image of the earth. As GPR has short wavelengths in most earth materials, resolution of interfaces and discrete objects is very good. However, the attenuation of the signals in earth materials is high, and depths of penetration seldom exceed 10 m. Clay materials with a high cation exchange capacity increase the attenuation and decreasing penetration. Additonally, the presence of solutes or other substances which increase the electrical conductance of groundwater and have the same attenuation and penetration results.
The objective of GPR surveys is to map near-surface interfaces. For many surveys, the location of objects such as tanks or pipes in the subsurface is the objective. Dielectric properties of materials are not measured directly. The method is most useful for detecting changes in the geometry of subsurface interfaces.
Geologic problems conducive to solution by GPR methods are numerous and include the following: bedrock configuration, location of pipes and tanks, location of the groundwater surface, borrow investigations, and others. Geologic and geophysical objectives determine the specific field parameters and techniques. Delineation of the objectives and the envelope of acceptable parameters are specified in advance. However, as the results cannot be foreseen from the office, considerable latitude is given to the field geophysicist to incorporate changes in methods and techniques.
The following questions are important considerations in advance of a GPR survey.
What is the target depth? Though target detection has been reported under unusually favorable circumstances at depths of 100 m or more, a careful feasibility evaluation is necessary if the investigation depths need to exceed 10 m.
What is the target geometry? Size, orientation, and composition are important.
a) What are the electrical properties of the target? As with all geophysical methods, a contrast in physical properties must be present. Dielectric constant and electrical conductivity are the important parameters. Conductivity is most likely to be known or easily estimated.
b) What are the electrical properties of the host material? Both the electrical properties and homogeneity of the host must be evaluated. Attenuation of the signal is dependent on the electrical properties and on the number of minor interfaces that will scatter the signal.
c) Are there any possible interfering effects? Radio frequency transmitters, extensive metal structures (including cars) and power poles are probable interfering effects for GPR.
The physics of electromagnetic wave propagation are beyond the scope of this manual. However, there are two physical parameters of materials that are important in wave propagation at GPR frequencies. One property is conductivity (σ), the inverse of electrical resistivity (ρ). The relationships of earth material properties to conductivity, measured in mS/m (1/1,000 Ωm), are given in the section on electrical methods.
The other physical property of importance at GPR frequencies is the dielectric constant (ε), which is dimensionless. This property is related to how a material reacts to a steady-state electric field; that is, conditions where a potential difference exists but no charge is flowing. Such a condition exists between the plates of a charged capacitor. A vacuum has the lowest ε, and the performance of other materials is related to that of a vacuum. Materials made up of polar molecules, such as water, have a high ε. Physically, a great deal of the energy in an EM field is consumed in interaction with the molecules of water or other polarizable materials. Thus, waves propagating through such a material both go slower and are subject to more attenuation.
Earth Material Properties
The roles of two earth materials that cause important variations in the EM response in a GPR survey need to be appreciated. The ubiquitous component of earth materials is water; the other material is clay. At GPR frequencies, the polar nature of the water molecule causes it to contribute disproportionately to the displacement currents that dominate the current flow at GPR frequencies. Thus, if significant amounts of water are present, the ε will be high, and the velocity of propagation of the electromagnetic wave will be lowered. Clay materials with their trapped ions behave similarly. Additionally, many clay minerals also retain water.
The physical parameters in table 18 are typical for the Characterization of earth materials. The range for each parameter is large; thus, the application of these parameters for field use is not elementary.
Simplified equations for attenuation and velocity (at low loss) are:
V = velocity in m/s,
ε = dielectric constant (dimensionless),
a = attenuation in decibels/m (db/m),
σ = electrical conductivity in mS/m.
A common evaluation parameter is dynamic range or performance figure for the specific GPR system. The performance figure represents the total attenuation loss during the two-way transit of the EM wave that allows reception; greater losses will not be recorded. As sample calculations, consider a conductive material (σ = 100 mS/m) with some water content (ε=20). The above equations indicate a velocity of 0.07 m per nanosecond (m/ns) and an attenuation of 38 dB/m. A GPR system with 100 dB of dynamic range used for this material will cause the signal to become undetectable in 2.6 m of travel.
The transit time for 2.6 m of travel would be 37 to 38 ns. This case might correspond geologically to a clay material with some water saturation. Alternatively, consider a dry material (ε=5) with low conductivity (σ = 5 mS/m). The calculated velocity is 0.13 m/ns and the attenuation is 3.8 dB/m, corresponding to a distance of 26‑27 m for 100 dB of attenuation and a travel time of 200 ns or more. This example might correspond to dry sedimentary rocks.
These large variations in velocity and especially attenuation are the cause of success (target detection) and failure (insufficient penetration) for surveys in apparently similar geologic settings. As exhaustive catalogs of the properties of specific earth materials are not readily available, most GPR work is based on trial and error and empirical findings.
Table 1. Electromagnetic properties of earth materials.
Microwave Research: Industry Canada Spectrum Management and Telecommunications
Microwave (radar) Technology:
UWB 1.6–10.5 GHz 18.75 cm – 2.8 cm used for through-the-wall radar and imaging systems.
Weather Radar etc:
S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm 'S' for 'short'
C 4–8 GHz 3.75–7.5 cm
X 8–12 GHz 2.5–3.75 cm
Longer waves like UWB can penetrate through walls or dry objects.
Radar frequency bands Band name Frequency range Wavelength range Notes
HF 3–30 MHz 10–100 m coastal radar systems, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) radars; 'high frequency'
P < 300 MHz 1 m+ 'P' for 'previous', applied retrospectively to early radar systems
VHF 30–300 MHz 1–10 m Very long range, ground penetrating; 'very high frequency'
UHF 300–1000 MHz 0.3–1 m Very long range (e.g. ballistic missile early warning), ground penetrating, foliage penetrating; 'ultra high frequency'
L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm Long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long'
S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm Moderate range surveillance, Terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short'
C 4–8 GHz 3.75–7.5 cm Satellite transponders; a compromise (hence 'C') between X and S bands; weather; long range tracking
X 8–12 GHz 2.5–3.75 cm Missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar; short range tracking. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.
Ku 12–18 GHz 1.67–2.5 cm high-resolution
K 18–24 GHz 1.11–1.67 cm from German kurz, meaning 'short'; limited use due to absorption by water vapour, so Ku and Ka were used instead for surveillance. K-band is used for detecting clouds by meteorologists, and by police for detecting speeding motorists. K-band radar guns operate at 24.150 ± 0.100 GHz.
Ka 24–40 GHz 0.75–1.11 cm mapping, short range, airport surveillance; frequency just above K band (hence 'a') Photo radar, used to trigger cameras which take pictures of license plates of cars running red lights, operates at 34.300 ± 0.100 GHz.
mm 40–300 GHz 7.5 mm – 1 mm millimetre band, subdivided as below. The frequency ranges depend on waveguide size. Multiple letters are assigned to these bands by different groups. These are from Baytron, a now defunct company that made test equipment.
V 40–75 GHz 4.0 - 7.5 mm Very strongly absorbed by atmospheric oxygen, which resonates at 60 GHz.
W 75–110 GHz 2.7 – 4.0 mm used as a visual sensor for experimental autonomous vehicles, high-resolution meteorological observation, and imaging.
UWB 1.6–10.5 GHz 18.75 cm – 2.8 cm used for through-the-wall radar and imaging systems.
Radar engineering: Radar components
A radars components are:
* A transmitter that generates the radio signal with an oscillator such as a klystron or a magnetron and controls its duration by a modulator.
* A waveguide that links the transmitter and the antenna.
* A duplexer that serves as a switch between the antenna and the transmitter or the receiver for the signal when the antenna is used in both situations.
* A receiver. Knowing the shape of the desired received signal (a pulse), an optimal receiver can be designed using a matched filter.
* An electronic section that controls all those devices and the antenna to perform the radar scan ordered by a software.
* A link to end users.
Dielectric Heating and RF Capacitance
"The listed dielectric constant values will assist you in determining when an RF Capacitance level monitor can be used. The lower the dielectric constant of the material the more difficult the material will be to detect. RF Capacitance probes can detect material with a minimum dielectric constant of 1.5. Some materials within this reference guide fall below this minimum dielectric constant, so RF Capacitance probes are not recommended for use with such materials. Contact the supplier when working with a low dielectric constant for application assistance."
A few listed dielectric values for their high RF Capacitance.
Alcohol, methyl 33.6
Sea water 88
Corn, sugar, liquid 115
"Wet foliage" is a radar attenuation term, and peat is a good dielectric, so a cheap dielectric solution may consist of placing green leaves in water containers.
Magnetic and Dielectric Microwave Absorbing Thin Sheets
The aim of this work is to present radar cross section (RCS) measurements of a panel constituted of a flat aluminum plate with and without radar absorbing materials (RAM) type thin rubber sheets, in the range of 8 – 12 GHz. Two different loads were evaluated in the RAM formulation: 1. Magnetic (ferrites - MnZn, NiZn and MgZn based), and 2. Dielectric (conducting polymers - polyaniline based). -- Radar absorbing materials can be classified in two broad categories, either dielectric or magnetic absorbers [1-7]. Dielectric absorbers depend on the ohmic loss of energy that can be achieved by loading lossy fillers like carbon, graphite, conducting polymers or metal particles/powder into a polymeric matrix. Among the dielectric properties can be cited the dielectric constant and the loss tangent (tan Æ). Magnetic absorbers depend on the magnetic hysteresis effect, which is obtained when particles like ferrites are filled into a polymeric matrix [4,5].
1. Magnetic: MnZn, NiZn, MgZn ferrites and iron carbonyl in an elastomeric matrix (urethane or silicone rubber), in the form of thin flexible sheets. The loads were filled in the matrix with ratio weight of 20% MnZn, 10%NiZn, 5% MgZn and 5% iron carbonyl. Physico-chemical characteristics of the fillers and the polyurethane and silicone resins as well as the sheet preparation procedures were previously described [1, 9-12, 14-16].
2. Dielectric: conducting polymer - based on polyaniline (PAni), in a elastomeric matrix (EPDM – etilene-propilenediene terpolymer), in form of thin flexible sheets. Blends of EPDM/doped PAni were prepared in an internal mixer coupled to a torque Rheometer (Haake Rheocord 90) in a ratio 70/30 w/w. This procedure was previously described [13,17-19]. III
The results showed a RCS reduction of 55-98% and of 40-95%, when the magnetic and the dielectric panels, were impinged at normal incidence, respectively.
The magnetic sheets showed more effective to attenuate the incident radiation that the RAM loaded with conducting polymer in the frequence range of 8-12 GHz. However, considering that PAni loaded RAM is nearly five times lighter than the magnetic one, its application in aeronautical field is very promising.
Radar absorbing materials based on titanium thin film
RAM are characterized by converting the energy of electromagnetic wave into thermal energy. Such materials are classified in two types, according to their interactions with the electromagnetic wave: materials with dielectric losses, which interact with the wave electric field, and materials with magnetic losses, which interact with the wave magnetic field.
The RAM studied in this paper is a metallic thin film with dielectric losses. In this case, when an external electric field is applied, several electric dipoles on the dielectric material (thin film) are formed. These dielectric dipoles are guided by the applied electric field. The interaction between the dipoles and the electric field leads to the formation of aligned dipoles, according to the applied electric field, enabling the material to store potential electric energy (Folgueras and Rezende, 2007). -- As mentioned in the literature, metals are excellent reflectors of microwaves, since they tend to keep null the electric field on their surfaces (Mayes, 2006). However, some metals and transition metals may behave as absorbers when reduced to nanometer thickness. As previously cited, Kantal films with thicknesses varying from 10 to 200 nm perform effectively as RAM when used as coating on waveguide internal walls (Bhat, Datta and Suresh, 1998). In comparison to conventional RAM, the nanometer films can present similar electromagnetic wave attenuation performance, but they are lighter. -- Therefore, thin films are able to interact with the electromagnetic wave, forming electric dipoles. In this particular case, the mechanism of absorption is based on the polarization of the metallic film and losses. Firstly, when the electromagnetic wave reaches the film it becomes polarized by the wave electric field and, consequently, electric current (Eddy currents) is produced due to the induced polarization. After that, the electromagnetic wave energy is changed into heat through the known Joule effect (Balanis, 1989; Nohara, 2003), due to the presence of defects in the crystalline structure of the nanofilm, which confers resistance to the electric current.
Aluminum is a very good conductor similar to Copper, Lead is very dense and used for this reason in many different industrial applications, Titanium is a very strong metal and microwaves can actually bounce because of this hardness, Magnesium is the earth metal in the oceans, high attenuation, and has different properties linked to its name, magnetic wave interference aka MgZn (magnetic hysteresis effects).
An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Enamel paints sometimes contain glass powder or tiny metal flake fragments instead of the color pigments found in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint is sometimes mixed with varnish or urethane to increase shine as well as assist its hardening process.
Pigment or Filler
Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. -- Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.
Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, barytes, clay, etc. -- Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, titanium white (titanium dioxide), -- Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called Titanium White, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. -- Baryte, or barite, (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. The baryte group consists of baryte, celestine, anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless, and is the main source of barium. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba,Sr)SO4. -- Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement -- Permanent White: Barium sulphate (heavy spar), used as a white pigment or paint, -- . Talc is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
In vegetation magnesium is the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers. -- (this is linked to a theory that trees and plant life absorb of radation from the sun, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, etc., and deforestation leads to increase the Earth's core temperature when it absorbs more radiation from the sun and through climate change, which is similar to the radiation being reflected back into space by the white ice sheets in the north and south poles. Increasing the Earth's core temperature is linked to increasing volcanic activity, which is linked to the 5 mass extinctions in Earth's history. See Inspired by the Movie 2012, .. (videos))
The Mg2+ cation is the second most abundant cation in seawater (occurring at about 12% of the mass of sodium there), which makes seawater and sea-salt an attractive commercial source of Mg. -- In 1618, a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well there. The cows refused to drink because of the water’s bitter taste, but the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. The substance became known as Epsom salts and its fame spread; it was eventually recognized to be hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4·7?H2O. -- Magnesium sulfate, as the heptahydrate called Epsom salts, is used as bath salts, as a laxative, and as a highly soluble fertilizer.
Magnesium chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate, glycinate and citrate are all used as oral magnesium supplements. Oral magnesium supplements have been claimed to be therapeutic for some individuals who suffer from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). -- Spices, nuts, cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, and vegetables are rich sources of magnesium. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are also rich in magnesium as they contain chlorophyll. Observations of reduced dietary magnesium intake in modern Western countries compared to earlier generations may be related to food refining and modern fertilizers that contain no magnesium. -- There has been some speculation that magnesium deficiency can lead to depression. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) magnesium has been found low in treatment-resistant suicidal depression and in patients that have attempted suicide. Brain magnesium has been found low in TRD using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, an accurate means for measuring brain magnesium. Blood and CSF magnesium do not appear well-correlated with major depression. Magnesium chloride in relatively small doses was found to be as effective in the treatment of depressed elderly type 2 diabetics with hypomagnesemia as imipramine 50 mg daily.
Radar Attenuation: Slate and Granite
One x-ray and radar attenuation method consists of adding barite, Barium (Ba), to cement to increase its attenuation. Similar to lead it is dense, number 56 on the periodic table and an Earth Metal like Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca).
Dolomite is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. -- Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium, often as a result of diagenesis. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone, or in old U.S. geologic literature as magnesian limestone.
Particle physics researchers prefer to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials, it can insulate against interference from cosmic rays without adding to background radiation levels.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. -- Some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. -- Limestone may be crystalline, clastic, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, quartz, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock. -- Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly where there are waterfalls, and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. -- During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process (orogeny), limestone recrystallizes into marble. -- It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide), slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), cement and mortar. -- Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. -- These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials (including limestone products, concrete and mortar) and as chemical feedstocks, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric periods in both the Old World and the New World. Lime is used extensively for waste water treatment with ferrous sulfate. -- The rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived, typically limestone or chalk, are composed primarily of calcium carbonate. They may be cut, crushed or pulverized and chemically altered. "Burning" (calcination) converts them into the highly caustic material quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) and, through subsequent addition of water, into the less caustic (but still strongly alkaline) slaked lime or hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2), the process of which is called slaking of lime. -- Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. Iron (as Fe2+) substitutes for magnesium (Mg) with a complete solution series with siderite, FeCO3. Calcium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel may also occur in small amounts. Dolomite, (Mg,Ca)CO3, is almost indistinguishable from magnesite.
Benitoite (ben-EE-toe-ite) is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Benitoite fluoresces under short wave ultraviolet light, appearing bright blue to bluish white in color. The more rarely seen clear to white benitoite crystals fluoresce red under long-wave UV light.
Ferric Slate Test
An example of ferric slate that would help attenuate microwaves and radar is rusty slate (rusty iron content) and charcoal slate (graphite/carbon dielectric). One radar attenuation research document claims that magnetic metals, MgZn and MnZn, are better than dielectric types carbon/graphite at attenuating radar. Lead is used in the industry for its density and relatively low cost but toxic, a neuro-toxin, iron is the cheapest metal. -- Grey Slate contains a high amount of alumina, aluminum is a metal and reflects radar, and Granites like Dark Granites can also contain aluminum, iron, titanium, etc.
Description: Slate Stone or simply slate is compact metamorphic rock, composed primarily of silica and alumina. Alumina - Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) -- Chemical Properties of Slatestone -- The necessary mineral composition of a slate-stone consists of members of mica group and clay group. -- The mica group includes sericite and muscovite. Among these, sericite is an alteration mineral of plagioclase feldspars and muscovite is a phyllosilicate mineral of potassium and aluminum. -- The second group, i.e., clay group consists of paragonite, kaonilite, and chlorite. Oxides, quartz, feldspar, calcites, and little amount of ferro-magnesium constitutes the accessory minerals.
Granite - An unstratified igneous rock composed of coarse grains or crystals of quartz, feldspar, mica and sometimes hornblende.
Biotite - A dark, iron and magnesium-rich mica found in granite. Biotite or black mica, K(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)Si3O10(OH,F)2, is rich in iron and magnesium and typically occurs in mafic rocks. Biotite occurs widely throughout many different rock types, adding glitter to schist, "pepper" in salt-and-pepper granite, and darkness to sandstones. But it is the predominant mica in mafic rocks like gabbro.
Feldspar - Any of a group of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with either potassium, sodium, calcium, or barium. An essential constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks.
Hornblende - A group of minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and aluminum silicates. -- Hornblende is the most common amphibole; it is usually black, shiny and brittle. A long, dark mineral with abundant cleavage faces in a granitic rock is hornblende more often than not. The chemical makeup of hornblende is quite variable, so its formula is ugly: (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe+2,Fe+3,Al)5(OH)2[(Si,Al)8O22]. Hornblende is usually black but can also be dark green or brown. It is a common primary mineral in granitic rocks and a common metamorphic mineral in gneiss and schist.
Kaolinite - A hydrous aluminum silicate mineral.
Muscovite - A white, aluminum-rich mica found in granite.
Gabbro is a dark plutonic rock that is considered to be the plutonic equivalent of basalt. -- This particular gabbro is mostly hornblende, magnetite and light-colored plagioclase.
Granite consists mainly of quartz, feldspar, and ferromagnesian ("dark") minerals: hornblende, augite, and biotite (though not necessarily). The overall color of granite is due mainly to the feldspar: pink, gray, greenish, white, and even bluish. Black-looking "granites" get their color from a high percentage of hornblende or other dark mineral; but by this point they are not really granites anymore (see "diorite" and "gabbro").
Microwave Oven (Wikipedia)
MICROWAVE OVEN, A microwave oven passes (non-ionizing) microwave radiation (at a frequency near 2.45 GHz) through food, causing dielectric heating primarily by absorption of the energy in water. Microwave ovens became common kitchen appliances in Western countries in the late 1970s, following development of inexpensive cavity magnetrons. Water in the liquid state possesses many molecular interactions that broaden the absorption peak. In the vapor phase, isolated water molecules absorb at around 22 GHz, almost ten times the frequency of the microwave oven.
PRINCIPLES, A microwave oven works by passing non-ionizing microwave radiation, usually at a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (GHz)—a wavelength of 122 millimetres (4.80 in)—through the food. Microwave radiation is between common radio and infrared frequencies. Water, fat, and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating. Many molecules (such as those of water) are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a partial positive charge at one end and a partial negative charge at the other, and therefore rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field of the microwaves. Rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion, thus dispersing energy. This energy, when dispersed as molecular vibration in solids and liquids (i.e., as both potential energy and kinetic energy of atoms), is heat.
Microwave heating is more efficient on liquid water than on frozen water, where the movement of molecules is more restricted. It is also less efficient on fats and sugars (which have a smaller molecular dipole moment) than on liquid water. Microwave heating is sometimes explained as a resonance of water molecules, but this is incorrect: such resonance only occurs in water vapor at much higher frequencies, at about 20 GHz. Moreover, large industrial/commercial microwave ovens operating at the common large industrial-oven microwave heating frequency of 915 MHz—wavelength 328 millimetres (12.9 in)—also heat water and food perfectly well.
FARADAY CAGE, The cooking chamber is in fact a Faraday cage, and it prevents the waves from coming out of the oven. The oven door usually has a window for easy viewing, but the window has a layer of conductive mesh some distance from the outer panel to maintain the shielding. Because the size of the perforations in the mesh is much less than the microwaves' wavelength, most of the microwave radiation cannot pass through the door, while visible light (with a much shorter wavelength) can.
METAL AND ALUMINUM, Frozen dinners, pies, and microwave popcorn bags often contain a thin susceptor made from aluminium film in the packaging or included on a small paper tray. The metal film absorbs microwave energy efficiently and consequently becomes extremely hot and radiates in the infrared, concentrating the heating of oil for popcorn or even browning surfaces of frozen foods. Heating packages or trays containing susceptors are designed for single use and are discarded as waste. -- Any metal or conductive object placed into the microwave will act as an antenna to some degree, resulting in an electric current. This causes the object to act as a heating element. This effect varies with the object's shape and composition, and is sometimes utilized for cooking.
Dear Lung Association
I would like to inform you and address a concern linked to lung cancer. -- Criminal harassment networks, organized crime, is using microwave technology, radiation, in this case and issue of concern microwave radar technology, which irritates the lungs, irritation is linked to inflammation, and inflammation is linked to cancer, in this case lung cancer. -- The use of microwave radar technology in this manner is linked to criminal harassment, intimidation, physical harm linked to cell damage and irritation, and cancer, which can lead to a person's death, a form of assassination or murder. -- Lung cancer being the #1 killer of men and women. -- Sincerely,
Microwave and Radiation:
"Childhood leukemia can occur if a fetus is exposed to x-rays during the first trimester of pregnancy." - Prescription for Nutritional Healing fourth edition p. 662
Ghost Rider, "You Can't Catch The Wind" or Focused Ultrasound and Energy Weapons Assaults
The mob using energy assault weapons, powerful radar, and focused ultrasound from neighboring homes along with provocation "you can't catch the wind" or focused ultrasound and energy assaults.
This video clip illustrates what organized crime is currently doing to targeted citizens and human right defenders in Canada. The mob in Canada is using energy assault weapons, powerful radar from neighboring homes, public places, and at the court house. They use LRAD and HSS focused ultrasound technology in the same manner for threats and provocation. The regime and authorities deny this and claim that there is no evidence, something organized crime would say too. They need a faraday cage to shield from the radar assaults and a wall of water bottles to shield from the focused ultrasound.
Logan's Run, Run Away Strategy "run away or get cancer".
The movie scene illustrates the use of an energy weapon "run runner", in reality the mob is using powerful radar assaults "run away or get cancer" aka "Run Runner!".
The reality is that the mob is using energy assault weapons, powerful radar aimed at inflicting deadly cancers "run away or get cancer" during criminal proceedings. Those that run away are recaptured and incarcerated and those that do not run away their behavior linked to attempts to protect themselves from these assaults, avoiding these or building a faraday cage, are used to justify police psychiatric intervention that leads to incarceration.
One assault pattern that they like to use is repetitive assaults to the testicles, to subjugate or degrade and castrate men. They assault the top of the head from the weaponization of space so men lift their hands towards their head and then assault the testicles from a neighboring home or underground emitter.
U.S. sees China launch as test of anti-satellite muscle -source - (Reuters)
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. government believes a Chinese missile launch this week was the first test of a new interceptor that could be used to destroy a satellite in orbit, a U.S. defense official told Reuters on Wednesday. China launched a rocket into space on Monday, but no objects were placed into orbit, the Pentagon said on Wednesday. The object re-entered Earth's atmosphere above the Indian Ocean. -- China has said the rocket, launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in western China, carried a science payload to study the earth's magnetosphere.
"I want to emphasize that China has consistently advocated for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes the weaponization of outer space as well as an arms race in outer space," Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei told reporters in Beijing.
Radar Attenuation, Calcium CaCO3 and Magnesium MgCO3 Carbonates - (news flash)
Marble, Limestone, and Travertine tiles (stones) are all different types of Calcium carbonate that attenuate powerful radar. Different types like Dolomite, Marble (dolomite) CaMg(CO3), Serpentine that contains Magnesium Mg, and Pewter that contains Tin Sn may increase this attenuation factor. A cheap source of radar attenuation is Green Foliage (leaves) in bottles with water, radar attenuation term is "wet foliage", these contain Magnesium Mg and Carbon C, the Chlorophyll.
The Mg+, magnesium ion, is at the center of chlorophyll, photosynthesis, converting light photons and energy into plant food, sugar, plants eat photons or energy. Recently I saw a TEDTalk on molten salt batteries that consisted of the Mg+, .. , that interesting idea is capturing these powerful radar assaults through a faraday cage in batteries similar to solar technology.
Dear Dr. Karen O'Neil, Niday, Chuck, info
I am a human rights defender in Canada with a world leading website about workplace bullying, sexual harassment, discrimination, suicide factors and prevention, rage shooting factors, and much more. In recent years I have been under assault from different types of radar aimed at inflicting deadly cancers and criminal harassment participants, which I also document. I have been using a faraday cage and dielectric materials in attempts to protect myself during judicial proceedings that involved a published Mobbing Research article and still ongoing following these. I have looked into the issue of detecting these in the past but was not very successful and the equipment required very expensive. On May 15, 2013 I saw a report that involved the Green Bank Astronomy Observatory and the Microwave Police, Chuck Niday driving around with a vehicle to detect these. I have also added this video the page:
I may add this web url to the page as an information link.
I may add some of the technical data from this site to our web page.
The assaults are from neighboring homes, the weaponization of space, and a few months later from underground emitters that were slipped under the home and faraday cage (van). There is no support from the authorities, assault victims are faced with denial and police psychiatric intervention that leads to incarceration.
I would like to know what advice or technical guidelines you recommend for detecting these, the cheapest basic equipment, and if you have any used equipment that you would like to donate. I have recently updated the donate page to accept hosting, software, etc, and equipment to detect these would also be a welcome donation.
PS. you may also appreciate the Climate Change & Mass Extinction page on our site.
Canada H7P 3E3
Dr. Karen O'Neil
Green Bank West Virginia Telescope
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
P.O. Box 2
Green Bank, WV 24944 (USA)
General Fax: 304-456-2229
NRAO Technology Center [NTC] (includes Central Development Lab)
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